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Czasowniki modalne PDF Drukuj Email

 

W języku niemieckim występuje 6 czasowników modalnych.

Poniżej wzór odmiany:



wollen können müssen dürfen sollen mögen
ich will kann muss darf soll mag
du willst kannst musst darfst sollst magst
er/sie/es will kann muss darf soll mag
wir wollen können müssen dürfen sollen mögen
ihr wollt könnt müsst dürft sollt mögt
sie/Sie wollen können müssen dürfen sollen mögen


Jak widać odmieniają się one nieregularnie, tracą przegłos (können, müssen, dürfen, mögen) lub samogłoskę tematyczną (wollen).


Czasowniki te występują zwykle z bezokolicznikiem jakiegoś innego czasownika, który stoi na ostatnim miejscu w zdaniu.


Znaczenie i przykłady użycia:

1. wollen - chcieć

- Ich will etwas trinken. Chcę się czegoś napić.

- Willst du nach Deutschland fahren? Czy chcesz pojechać do Niemiec?


2. können - móc, potrafić

- Ich kann schwimmen. Umiem pływać.

- Ich kann dich nicht besuchen. Nie mogę Cię odwiedzić.


3. müssen - musieć

- Ich muss morgen in die Schule gehen. Muszę iść jutro do szkoły.

- Du musst nicht mit mir kommen. Nie musisz iść ze mną.


4. dürfen - móc, mieć pozwolenie

- Kinder dürfen kein Alkohol trinken. - Dzieciom nie wolno pić alkoholu.

- Darf ich Monika einladen? - Czy mogę zaprosić Monikę?


5. sollen - mieć obowiązek, powinność

- Du sollst zu Hause bleiben. - Powinieneś zostać w domu.

- Er soll mehr lernen. - On powinien więcej się uczyć.


6. mögen - lubić

- Klaus und Peter mögen zusammen spielen. - Klaus i Peter lubią się razem bawić.

- Magst du Erika? - Lubisz Erikę?

 

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