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Rodzajniki określone, nieokreślone, zerowe - Der Artikel PDF Drukuj Email

Rodzajnik określone, nieokreślone, zerowe - Der Artikel


Kiedy mówimy o rodzajnikach musimy wiedzieć, że rodzajnik jest ściśle powiązany z rzeczownikiem. Rodzajnik, obojętnie czy określony czy nieokreślony, zawsze stoi przed rzeczownikiem. Są również przypadki, że w ogóle się pomija rodzajnik. Wtedy jest to tzw. rodzajnik zerowy.  Rodzajniki wskazują nam jakiego rodzaju jest dany rzeczownik np. der Mann – mężczyzna (rodzaj męski), die Frau – kobieta (rodzaj żeński), das Kind – dziecko (rodzaj nijaki). Należy przy tym pamiętać, że nie zawsze rodzaj w języku niemieckim pokrywa się z tym w języku polskim np. die Blume (rodzaj żeński) – ten kwiatek (rodzaj męski), das Mädchen (rodzaj nijaki) – ta dziewczyna (rodzaj żeński).


Na początku omówimy rodzajnik nieokreślony.

Rodzajnika nieokreślonego używamy:

1. przed rzeczownikami o których nic bliżej nie wiemy, o których mówimy po raz pierwszy np.

Das ist ein Auto. – To jest jakiś samochód.

Ein Herr geht – Jakiś pan idzie.


Należy przy tym zwrócić uwagę na to, że rodzajnik nieokreślony nie ma liczby mnogiej. I kiedy mówimy po raz pierwszy o czymś w liczbie mnogiej wówczas nie używamy rodzajnika.

Das sind Autos – To są samochody.

Herren gehen. Jacyś panowie idą.

2. po wyrażeniu es gibt (jest, są) np.

Es gibt hier in der Nähe eine Toilette. – Tutaj w pobliżu jest toaleta.


Odmiana rodzajnika nieokreślonego:

























Małe objaśnienie do tabelki

Pod Maskulinum (rodzaj męski) Femininum (rodzaj żeński) i Neutrum(rodzaj nijaki) są odmienione rodzajniki do liczby pojedynczej a tam gdzie jest Plural to do liczby mnogiej. Czyli jak widzimy w liczbie mnogiej rodzajnik nieokreślony w ogóle nie występuje.

Teraz zajmiemy się rodzajnikiem określonym, którego używamy najczęściej:

1. kiedy mówimy o rzeczach osobach o których była już mowa w poprzednim zdaniu np.

Das ist ein Buch. Das Buch ist spannend. – To jest jakaś książka. Ta książka jest interesująca

Das ist eine Frau. Die Frau ist jung. To jest jakaś pani. Ta pani jest młoda.

2. przed nazwami krajów i krain geograficznych w rodzaju męskim i żeńskim jak:

Die Schweiz, die Türkei, der Irak, der Suden

3. przed nazwami gór, rzek i mórz np.

Die Oder – Odra der Rhein – Ren

Die Ostsee – Morze Bałtyckie.

4. przed rzeczownikami uważanymi za jedyne na świecie np.

Die Sonne – słońce, die Welt – świat.

Odmiana rzeczownika określonego:

























Teraz podam sytuacje kiedy występuję rodzajnik zerowy a więc kiedy po prostu nie ma rodzajnika.


Rodzajnik opuszczamy :

1. przed imionami, nazwiskami, nazwami krajów które są rodzaju nijakiego np.

Stefan, Otto,  Ursula imiona.

Polen , Deutschland państwa.

2. przy rzeczownikach materiałowych nieokreślonych bliżej np.

Dieser Ring ist aus Gold. – Pierścionek jest ze złota.

3. kiedy przed rzeczownikiem jest viel – dużo lub wenig – mało.

Ich habe viel Geld. – Mam dużo pieniędzy.

Er isst wenig Obst. – On je mało owoców.

4. kiedy mówimy o czymś po raz pierwszy w liczbie mnogiej:

Hier wachsen Blumen. – Tutaj rosną kwiaty.

5. kiedy stosujemy rzeczownika oznaczające zawód, funkcję lub narodowość:

Er ist Pole. – On jest Polakiem.

Sie ist Ärztin. – Ona jest lekarką.



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